Difference between tilde (~) and caret (^) in package.json, Semantic Versioning of npm packages and npm audit for vulnerability fixes
interview questions , Uncategorized / November 27, 2019

In the package.json files of  Node.js applications, the dependencies are added specifying their version. Sometimes these version numbers can be preceded by tilde (~) and caret (^) characters. What do they actually intent and what is the difference between them?     Semantic Versioning of npm packages Consider a version of a package like 1.2.3                It is of the form MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH MAJOR in version is updated when major change, which can affect compatibility is made and the new one might not have backward compatibility. MINOR in version is updated when a minor change is made in a backward-compatible manner. PATCH in version is updated when backward compatible bug fixes are made. Additional labels for pre-release and build metadata are available as extensions to the MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH format. Caret will install packages with version updated until just before the next major and tilde will install packages with version updated until just before next minor. We will see this in detail below   caret (^) character in the version  caret (^) character in version number means that the package version installed will be updated up to the latest minor and its patch, of the major. For…

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